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珠江口海雾天气气候特征及成因分析
作者:周群1  黄焕卿1  邓小花1  张润宇1  陈越2 
单位:1. 国家海洋环境预报中心, 北京 100081;
2. 深中通道管理中心, 广东 中山 528400
关键词:珠江口 海雾 环流形势 气象水文条件 
分类号:P732.1
出版年·卷·期(页码):2022·39·第一期(1-10)
摘要:
利用设立于珠江口海域具有较高时间分辨率的自动气象站的观测资料,结合欧洲中期天气预报中心再分析逐日数据集ERA-Interim,对珠江口海雾的天气气候特征、环流场及相关的气象和水文因子进行分析研究。结果表明:海雾日数月际变化显著,海雾盛季为2-4月;日变化特征表现为海雾多生成于夜间-凌晨时段,多消散于早晨-上午时段。珠江口海雾发生的大尺度环流形势可分为冷锋型、均压场型、低压前部型和高压后部型4类,其中冷锋型海雾属于混合雾,其他均属于平流冷却雾。进一步的分析表明,层结稳定且适宜的相对湿度、风速、风向及海-气温差等气象和水文条件,有利于珠江口海雾过程的发生和发展,这对做好海雾过程的预报具有一定的指导意义。
Based on the observations of automatic weather stations with high temporal resolution in the Pearl River Estuary and the ERA-Interim daily reanalysis dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), this paper analyzes the synoptic and climate characteristics of the sea fog in the Pearl River Estuary and related circulation patterns, meteorological and hydrological factors. It is found that the number of days with sea fog shows significant monthly variation with the peak season from February to April. The characteristic of diurnal variation is that most sea fog forms at night before dawn and dissipates in the late morning. The large-scale circulation patterns causing sea fog in the Pearl River Estuary can be divided into four types:cold front, uniform pressure field, front of low pressure and rear portion of high pressure. The fog of the cold front type belongs to mixed fog, while the others belong to advection cooling fog. Further analysis indicates that appropriate meteorological and hydrological conditions including stable air stratification, suitable air relative humidity, wind speed and sea-air temperature differences favor the formation and development of the sea fog in the Pearl River Estuary. Therefore, the results found in this paper provide certain guiding significance for the prediction of sea fog over the Pearl River Estuary in the future.
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